Yes, Google looks at desktop and mobile differently from a user experience standpoint but looks for cohesiveness across both as well.
Now that Google has more user behavior data on mobile devices because of Chrome and Android, Google can treat them differently.
More users are searching on mobile utilizing voice search and wearable devices, so the search is evolving to accommodate these new ways of searching.
In March 2019, Google transitioned completely to mobile-first indexing(opens in a new window). This change means that businesses are being forced to have a mobile-optimized website in order to rank in search on desktop and mobile devices. Google will assess the user experience (UX) and SEO optimization of your mobile site and pages to determine if you are providing a mobile-optimized user experience in order to rank in search.